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Hepatitis A


Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor (faecal-oral route). There is also an association of hepatitis A amongst men who have sex with men (MSM).

Children, especially young children may be more likely to be exposed to hepatitis A during travel due to their natural exploratory nature and hand to mouth habits. Increasing age and being immunocompromised are both risk factors for severe hepatitis A infection.

Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.

The Illness

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.


There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A virus.

Recommendations for Travellers

Prevention is focused on food and water precautions and practising meticulous hand and personal hygiene to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection.

Detailed risk management advice can be found on the following pages:

Vaccination is recommended if you are visiting areas where drinking water may be unsafe and where hygiene and sanitation is poor. Vaccination against hepatitis A is available for all MSM, regardless of whether they are travelling to or going to reside in areas of high or intermediate risk.

There are various brands of hepatitis A vaccine available: Avaxim, Havrix Monodose, Havrix Junior Monodose and Vaqta Paediatric.

Hepatitis A vaccine is also available in a preparation that combines it with hepatitis B vaccine: Ambirix, Twinrix and Twinrix Paediatric and a preparation that combines it with typhoid vaccine: Viatim.

Combined vaccine preparation PILs

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